In a highly competitive market economy, some banks will lead to bankruptcy because of poor management or even shut down. To avoid a banking crisis, the need for protection for bank deposits, in addition to administrative means such as the central bank rediscount endures to the end of the bandwidth, but also need to develop through legal means to protect. Bank operates as a monetary commodity business, its free capital less, mainly engaged in business by attracting deposits. Bank's exposure is mainly about a few points: 1. Deposits instability, if the bank and the borrower through the disposal of assets and other ways can not meet depositors escrow request, there will be a liquidity crisis. (2) the characteristics of commodity operating currency, the bank's "borrow short-term loans long" term conversion can not attract a large number of deposits for loans circulation, it is easy to fall into a liquidity crisis. 3. The external environment and operational risks.